(A look at the surrounding chapters of Romans 8 and 10 to show the immediate context of Romans Chapter 9)
Romans chapter 9 is claimed by many to be the best defense of predestination and the gospel of Calvinism. I would agree that this passage is a formidable weapon, for I, too, formerly believed these doctrines. And let me say also from the outset here that I am not condemning those who have come to believe in eternal election and predestination after their salvation, rather, I am calling out their beliefs as to what is error and heresy. I am well aware that men can be saved and believe the doctrine of Calvinism-I was one of them. I have several close friends that hold these same beliefs. It is my belief that any man can come to Jesus and later get deceived by error, and I could point out several people from scripture who as Christians did these very things. I don’t believe, however, that a man can believe the gospel of Calvinism for his initial salvation. Paul talked about the gospel saving us, not a false gospel. Paul mentioned in 1 Cor. 15 that the first teaching of the gospel is that “Christ died for our sins”. That is primary and of utmost importance. To misunderstand who “our” is is to misunderstand the gospel. So my dear reader, please understand the difference being spoken of here. Being deceived after salvation is one thing, but believing a false gospel for your salvation is quite another.
Romans 9, at first glance, does appear to bolster the Reformed position. I will give them that much. If it can be proven otherwise, however, Calvinism will lose the heart and soul of its doctrine in the New Testament. Until now, I have not felt that I had a strong enough case against this chapter teaching predestination. I knew Romans 9 didn’t teach predestination as Calvinism teaches it, but I couldn’t prove it sufficiently, that is, until now.
In the past, I have had brothers ask me to answer Romans 9, and I would reply that I wasn’t ready. I recently had a woman on YouTube challenge me again, and it really hit me that I was neglecting it. I wasn’t trusting God enough to show me the answers himself. I knew that if I tackled Romans 9, it would be quite involved. But like most of my studies of late, I knew the Lord would guide me through it. I couldn’t avoid it any longer. I had to confront it head on. I had to “beard the lion” as they say.
It is a difficult chapter unless approached with much prayer and much study. But the Lord Jesus opened up my understanding, and because of him and my belief in his words, and my love for those who hold this position, I will now make my case against Calvinism’s teaching that Romans 9 is the best defense of predestination. This study will be no small endeavor indeed. Strap yourself in, for this is going to be a long and wild ride.
Romans 9 is chock full of Old Testament quotations, and it is these references that show the true meaning of Romans 9, and that correct understanding has nothing to do with Calvinism, predestination, or any other such thing. There are at least 15 quotations from the Old Testament in Romans chapter 9 alone. Not fully understanding the passages and the context of those passages quoted in this chapter is a prime example of how to misunderstand and wrest the scriptures to one’s own destruction. The word of God is so sharp, that if you don’t divide it correctly, it will cut you in pieces. You cannot approach scripture with the attitude that extensive study is not necessary or that comparing New Testament scripture with the Old is too time consuming and so forth. It is absolutely necessary for proper understanding; otherwise, you will be deceived. I was, and I admit being led away with the error of Calvinism.
In the beginning of my walk, I didn’t compare scripture with scripture like I should. I didn’t study scripture, I just read it. I saw scriptures in Romans 9 like “I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy” and just assumed that was speaking of predestination of souls. I fear that is the case with way too many Christians as well. What you are about to embark on is a study of Romans 9 like you have probably never seen, and I can say that having read plenty of studies on it back when I was led astray.
I pray that God will keep you from the same grievous error, for bear in mind, as I have stated before and shown on videos, Calvinism is not just another doctrine that we can “agree to disagree on.” It is a false gospel, and though I know that is a serious charge and will upset quite a few of you, I say it will all gravity and compassion, for Calvinism changes the foremost meaning of the gospel found in 1 Corinthians 15 that said “Christ died for OUR sins.” By saying Christ died only for some people’s sins, the gospel of Christ dying for our sins is changed. “Our” is construed to mean a select few, and so all other references to Jesus being “the Saviour of the world” and “tasting death for every man” and being “the propitiation for our sins and NOT FOR OURS ONLY but also for those of the whole world” are attacked. The gospel is corrupted under the guise of exalting a sovereign God. This teaching beguiles the people of God into believing a false gospel while at the same time convincing people that they are exalting God and putting down man’s abilities. I would be neglecting my duty as a Christian not to point this out.
No discussion of Romans 9 is in proper context unless you look at what was before this chapter in Romans 8 and what came after it in Romans 10. With that in mind, let me just mention some highlights from Romans 8 and 10 that will form the framework and background for Romans 9. Romans 8:1 tells us the following;
“There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus…” Romans 8:1
As I have mentioned before on video and in articles, the fact that all sinners, including the elect, were condemned to hell at one point, shows that the “elect” Calvinists were not predestined to heaven, for they themselves were condemned to hell just like anybody else. Jesus spoke of this same word “condemned” and said in John 3:18 that if you are not a believer, you are “condemned” to hell: “he that believeth not is condemned already.”
You cannot be predestined to heaven and be condemned to hell at the same time, Yet that is precisely what people are forced to believe and trying to make you believe. Those two points are irreconcilable. They show the impossibility of being predestined to heaven before or when you were born. I have yet to be proven wrong on this understanding, yet I am open to listening to any who would challenge this belief.
Condemnation to hell and being God’s elect are not both simultaneously possible. How can one be condemned to hell and picked for heaven at the same time? You might as well say someone is a child of Satan and a child of God at the same time. My friends, consider what I say, and the Lord Jesus give you understanding.
Keep in mind here that two of the greatest reproofs of Calvinism are shown in the immediate chapter preceding Romans 9. Paul did not give us this strong opposition to Calvinism and then go into an essay on predestination in Romans 9. I used this next verse also in a previous video, but it is so simple and so devastating to Calvinism that it must be pointed out here in Romans 8:9-”
But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.”
My friends, unless you have the Spirit of Christ IN YOU, you are “NONE OF HIS.” Do we see the impact of that statement as to Calvinism? Do we really? Calvinism teaches that the chosen are HIS ELECT (with my emphasis on “HIS”) before they were born millions and millions of eons ago. That is a standard teaching of Calvinism. They say that they have always been “HIS” from all eternity. Oh really? Scripture defies that teaching in three simple words: Before one gets saved a person is “NONE OF HIS.” No “elect” chosen person will say he had the Spirit of Christ in him before he was saved or even before he was born, so how can “his elect” be “none of his”? You are either his or not his, and if you are not “his,” you are also “none of his.”
My point is this: you can’t be “his elect” if you are “none of his.” You may not technically be his children yet, but you are “his elect”; therefore, in one major respect, you are his. However, you cannot be “his elect” and be “none of his” at the same time. The word “none” eliminates any ambiguity here. Since you were “none” of his, you were no part of Christ’s whatsoever in eternity past. There cannot exist a group of people called the elect who were selected millions of years ago and called “his elect.” Why? Because they are “NONE OF HIS” UNTIL they have the Spirit of Christ IN them. “His elect” have no claim to be any of his, for they are “NONE” of his. Scripture teaches that you are not his UNTIL you have the Spirit of Christ in you. You are none of his, not even “his elect.”
“None” is a strong word, my friends, and you simply cannot get around it. You were none of his just like I was none of his until, and only until, I believed in him and his Spirit dwelled in me. Do you seriously think Paul is teaching that there is a special class of people that were chosen in eternity past in Romans 9 just after telling us that no one was “His” in Romans 8 until they were in Christ Jesus? If he did, then Paul taught that you were “none of his” in Romans 8 and then taught you were “his” in eternity past in Romans 9. I don’t think we can accuse Paul of being that messed up.
Thirdly, Romans 8 contains another major proof against Calvinism, and it is found in verse 17:
“And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.”
Calvinism teaches that billions of years ago as his “elect,” you were predestined to inherit all things as children of God.You were guaranteed to inherit, or be an heir. If you are a guaranteed heir, then you are, in effect, an heir already. You have already been decided to be the heir. Since you supposedly are his elect and will inherit all things, you are no different than an heir already. Scripture refutes this false doctrine soundly and says that “if children, then heirs.” You must be his child to be an heir to the kingdom of God and Christ. There are no other heirs. There is not another class of heirs called “his elect” that are guaranteed to be heirs. You must be his child and have his Spirit inside you to be an heir.
Let’s look at scriptural proof of how you become an heir of God.
This is highly relevant because if you are supposedly God’s elect from all eternity, then you were already set to inherit everything of Christ. You were already decided to be his heirs though you weren’t physically ready to inherit it. However, scripture says you weren’t his heirs UNTIL you became his child. Calvinism destroys the doctrine of heirship, and grants heir status to the elect. If you are one of the chosen few elect, then those same elect from billions of eons ago were the heirs of salvation. They were chosen to be his heirs before they ever became children. They were, for all practical purposes, his heirs already. They just haven’t received it yet.
And if children, then heirs; heirsof God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together. Rom. 8:17
Again, this verse demonstrates that you have to be his child to be an heir, yet if you are his elect from eternity past, you are also his heir. Therefore, Calvinism creates another kind of heir-his elect.You become an heir without being a child yet. You are promised an inheritance just by being his elect. Calvinism has made becoming his child an afterthought to becoming his heir because you were already his heir. You were his elect.
For the promise, that he should be the heir of the world, was not to Abraham, or to his seed, through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. Romans 4:13
Here we see that in order to become an heir, it had to happen THROUGH the righteousness of faith. Faith had to be exercised and righteousness given to the believer before he could be called an heir. That obviously doesn’t happen in eternity past, and the point is that heirship again is bestowed when one becomes his child through faith, not being picked as his heir ahead of time in eternity past. That would bypass “through the righteousness of faith.” Faith would not be necessary to be an heir since you were already guaranteed an inheritance and heirship simply by being his elect.
And if ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise. Gal.3:29
This scripture very succinctly tells us how we are his heirs-”if ye be Christ’s.” You have to be saved, be his child, and be “his” before you are his heir. Anyone believing these erroneous doctrines should never claim that they were Christ’s before they were born, or if they do, then they would have to claim they were born again in eternity past, for that is the only way you become “Christ’s.”
Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ. Gal. 4:7
Another confirmation of how we are an heir-”if a son, then an heir…” Again, you must be his son before you are his heir. With Calvinism, you are an heir in from eternity past, so becoming a son is unnecessary for them to be an heir. In fact, they might as well proclaim they are his sons from eternity past, for those elect have all the benefits of being his son including being his heir.
That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life. Titus 3:7
There is no other way to be an heir, yet for Calvinism, there is another way to be an heir. Just be elect and be the one of the chosen few. Becoming his child is just an afterthought because you were already guaranteed to be the heir anyway. If you are confused about this, you should really think about these two points made thus far. They are “none of his” and not his heirs from eternity past because to be “his,” you have to have to be “in him” and HIM in you. To be an heir, you have to be his child. Jesus allows no other methods, especially man-made attempts such as Calvinism. Calvinism gives you another way to be an heir and gives another way to avoid condemnation.
Lastly, Romans 8:28-29 are other scriptures that are used by Calvinism to make its case, but in actuality, these scriptures are another strong case against it.
“And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose. For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren.”
The first part of this verse is used by Calvinism to teach that the elect from eternity past are “the called.” But again, they have the order backwards. All things do indeed work together for these “called” or “elect.” But notice that all things work together for good TO THEM THAT LOVE GOD. Unless and until you LOVE GOD, things don’t work together for good for you. That means, of course, that things don’t work together for good for you as some class of “elect” that were picked in eternity past. This verse has nothing to do with some group of people supposedly picked in eternity past. It has to do with those that love God. You didn’t love God as an elect chosen billions of years ago.
Notice next that “them that love God” ARE NAMED “THE CALLED.” You are not “the called” until you love God. That excludes the chosen elect from eons ago being “the called.” It is only those who love God who are the called. Unless you loved God billions of years ago, you were not the “called” back then. Of course, this eliminates an elect that was called long ago.
These scriptures are used by Calvinism to teach predestination of souls, especially because they see the word “predestination” in there and ASSUME it means predestination of the soul. Though it may SOUND like that, it means nothing of the sort. Look at exactly what is predestinated: us being conformed to his image. Nothing is stated or even implied about our eternal destiny being predestinated. Once we come to Christ, it is automatic and predestined that we will be “conformed to his image.” It is like you becoming friends with someone: once you do, you set off a series of events that will transpire that will occur because of your friendship. You will do things together, you will influence each other, etc. Once we come to Jesus, he will begin the process of conforming us to his image. Our predestination of being conformed to his image begins at that point, not millions of years ago. We are predestined to become like him once we know him and are born again. That verse said nothing about predestination of souls. I should know. I used to do the same thing, and many of you probably do too. We must be extremely respectful of every word of scripture, for every word of God is pure, and every word of God matters. When you have that attitude, you begin to see things like I’m showing you and like the Lord showed me.
Let’s also look at the context of chapter immediately following Romans 9, Romans 10. For the same reasons we looked at Romans 8, let’s not overlook the fact that Romans 10 is just as packed full of scriptures that defy Calvinism as Romans 8. Romans 9 is not some passage that breaks from the flow of thought of the preceding chapter and subsequent chapter. It is part of the whole. An essay on predestination is not stuck between two of the greatest chapters speaking against predestination.
So, before we get to Romans 9, let’s briefly look at many of the scriptures given in Romans 10 that show that anyone can come to the Lord Jesus Christ and be saved, not just the chosen few, and everyone else is left out in the cold. Bear in mind that I am showing you this to demonstrate that Paul’s foundation in Romans 8 and his follow up chapter in Romans 10 both demonstrate that anyone can come to Jesus Christ. Romans 9 is not some aberration or exception stuck in the middle of Romans 8 and 10. You want context? Well, here it is:
Brethren, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved. Rom. 10:1
Just like chapter 9, Paul is agonizing over Israel because they are lost. Doesn’t he know that they are lost because God chose not to save most of them as Calvinism want you to believe? As I mentioned earlier, why agonize over what God chose to do? Paul agonizes because it is Israel’s choice they they are lost, not God’s; otherwise, Paul’s agony is futile and is an affront to God’s sovereignty to do as he pleases. There is absolutely zero chance that Israel “might be saved” if they are not his elect. Why agonize over that? If Paul believes in Calvinism, he must assuredly know that most won’t be elect.
That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. Rom. 10:9-10
Notice that it is “man” believing God, not “elect,” preordained believers. The last time I checked, the word “man” as used here means everyone on this planet. “One small step for man” would be pretty funny if it didn’t mean all. There are no “chosen few” that are automatically believing in God because he selected them to. In that scripture, you have not been given a new heart to believe him yet. You believe him with your old heart, and he gives you salvation and a new heart. You believe “unto righteousness” with your old heart, so you get righteousness by believing with your old heart. Confession is made “unto“salvation; therefore, you are confessing and believing without having been saved so that you can get saved. That word “unto” is very important. It shows the direction of your faith and the object of it. It shows that you don’t have righteousness yet but are believing to get it. It shows that man is believing with his old heart “unto” righteousness and getting righteousness because of his belief. Otherwise, you are getting saved and being regenerated with his Spirit so you can believe in God. How absurd that is!
For the scripture saith,Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed. Rom 10:11
That scripture is a direct lie if only certain ones are “able” to believe on Jesus as Calvinism says. If that were the case, that scripture would be better rendered “whosoever is elect and able to believe on him” shall not be ashamed. That is exactly what Calvinists say it means, and I kid you not. “Whosoever” is such a strong word because it emphasizes everyone without exception. The word “whosoever” eliminates any meaning of some limited group like an “elect.” For those of you who like to use dictionaries to prove meanings (I don’t), Webster’s says “whosoever” means “no matter who.” So then, the scripture teaches “No matter who believeth on him shall not be ashamed.” It means every man, woman, and child on this planet has a chance to believe on Jesus. If “whosoever” means only a veryÂ limited, select few, then we might as well say black means white, for “whosoever” is the polar opposite meaning of an “elect,” chosen few. Those terms couldn’t be further apart, yet Calvinism will have us believe they mean the same thing. To them, “whosoever” means a “select, chosen, few elect.”
What Jesus really should have said, then, is “Come unto me, SOME of you that are weary and heavy laden, and I will give a few of you rest.” No, no, and a thousand times no. He said “Come unto me all ye that are weary and heavy laden, and I will give you rest.” Maybe Jesus should have said, “For God so loved SOME of the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that WHOSOEVER of the elect that believeth on him should not perish but have everlasting life.” Jesus said God so loved “the world,” not “some of the world.” Can you imagine Jesus saying God so loved some of the world, and yet, that is exactly what Calvinism teaches. That is no exaggeration whatsoever. Jesus said “whosoever” believes on him can be saved, not whosoever is able to believe on him can be saved. If you want to know how to add to the word of God and wrest the scriptures, Calvinism is your best example.
For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
The witness against Calvinism continues by the apostle Paul in the very next chapter of Romans 10. Paul is making several points here, and one in particular is that “there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek.” I wrote another article on that alone showing the similarities between the self righteousness of the Jews thinking they were the only chosen people to go to heaven and the people today who think the same exact thing. Believers of Calvinism are his new “chosen people,” and if you don’t happen to be one of those lucky few who got his number called in eternity past, you’re up a creek.
If you noticed in this scripture, the word “all” is used twice, and the first time it speaks of the “Lord over all.” Well, the Lord is over all, not just some, and the next few words uses that same “all” and says “all that call upon him.” That same “all” that the Lord is over, which is the whole earth unless you think the Lord is not over all, is applied to those who can call upon him. It is all, the same all that comprises the whole world over which the Lord reigns. If you say “all” can’t mean all the earth in that verse, then you must say the Lord is not over the whole earth, or the elect. You see how the Lord can trap you, my friends?
Paul tells us there is no difference, and that difference applies to elect and non-elect. The Lord is “rich unto all that call upon him.” Did you see that? He is rich to ALL THAT CALL UPON HIM. Well, Calvinism will start playing games and say that all CAN’T call upon him. Funny though, I didn’t see that disqualifying statement in that passage where it should have been if that were the case. What Calvinism says it actually teaches is this: “the same Lord over all is rich unto all THAT CAN CALL UPON HIM. Once again, they are adding to the word of God by this teaching. God nowhere even hints that men can’t call upon him. Jeremiah says “Call unto me and I will answer thee.” All the way back to Genesis, men have been calling upon the name of the Lord, and wasn’t just elect calling upon him, it was “men”: “And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to callupon the name of the LORD” Gen. 4:26. “For thou, Lord, art good, and ready to forgive; and plenteous in mercy unto all them that call upon thee” Psalm 86:5. God all throughout scriptures says for men to call upon the name of the Lord, and not once, not once, does he say men are unable to call upon the Lord.
How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher? Romans 10:14
So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. Romans 10:17
It is scriptures like this that make Calvinism really look totally contradictory. Calvinism likes to talk about its “golden chain” in Romans 8:30, but how about this “chain” in Romans 10? In the following verse, it gives the answer to the lame assertion by Calvinism that only certain ones (elect) are even able to “call” upon the name of the Lord. It answers the question of who is able to call, and by doing this, destroys the doctrine of Total Depravity which says only the elect can call upon the name of the Lord and be saved. This verse ties in “call” with “believe” and “heard” and “preacher.” Nothing is said about inability to call on the name of the Lord. It does say that the reason why they don’t call, and that is because they have NOT BELIEVED. And nothing is said about their inability to believe because they are not “elect.” Their faith comes by hearing the word of God, and it does not come as some transfusion of faith God imparts because they are elect. It comes from a lost man hearing the word of God and believing it. It is that simple and that powerful. Any add-ons to that are just that-add-ons. They are adding to the word of God.
The following verse is how Romans chapter 10 ends, and what a fitting ending it is to the teachings of Calvinism. Here you have God stretching his hands forth and pleading with the lost house of Israel, and for those today who hold this position, that is repugnant. They accuse people like myself of having a god that is weak and can’t save those he wants to. How utterly foolish is that statement! How indicative of a complete lack of understanding that is of who God really is. God does plead with the lost sinner to get saved. And there are many that don’t get saved who he pleads with, in fact, most of them. Does that make God weak and unable to save? I trow not.
But to Israel he saith, All day long I have stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people.
Points to keep in mind that Paul made in Romans 8 and 10:
As a review, then, let’s keep in mind what Paul taught us in the chapters directly before and after Romans 9, the supposed stronghold of the doctrine of Calvinism and predestination.
1. Calvinism claims he was condemned and elected at the same time. Calvinism teaches that they can be on their way to hell (condemned) and on their way to heaven (elect) at the same time. This is unscriptural, impossible, contradictory, and unreasonable. Everyone ever born was condemned to hell, including the elect of Calvinism. No true condemnation to hell can occur if you are picked to go to heaven regardless; therefore, the elect doesn’t experience true condemnation and bypasses what Jesus himself said everyone truly suffers: “he that believeth not IS CONDEMENED ALREADY” John 3:18. No Calvinist can claim he was ever truly condemned, no matter if he says he was, because he was not. He was never going to hell and never was in danger of it from all eternity past according to their beliefs. True condemnation is a joke as applied to Calvinism.
2. Since Calvinism claims its people have been God’s elect from all eternity and that they were “His elect” forever, they are in direct contradiction to scripture that says they were “none of his” UNTIL they had the Spirit of Christ in them: “Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his” Romans 8:9. You cannot be “his elect” and be “none of his” at the same time, and just like the verse about being condemned, Calvinism is in another catch 22 of significant proportions. They were “none of his” from all eternity, yet they claim they were “his.” They have a controversy with the Lord. They were not his. They are liars and are making the word of God a lie by saying they were his before Christ was in them.
3. A child of God, one that has been born again, is the only legitimate heir of salvation and Jesus Christ. You are not an heir until you are his child: “if children, then heirs…”. Also, in Galatians 4:7, it says, “if a son, then an heir.”
4. The word “predestination” as used in Romans 8 has nothing to do with the predestination of a man’s soul, though many will not look at the context of how it is used and just assume that is what it is speaking in reference to. Paul said “he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son…” We are predestinated alright, but we are predestinated to be conformed to his image. Every child of God that has gotten saved is NOW predestinated to be conformed to the image of Christ. That happens as a result of salvation, not before it.
5. Paul says in Romans 10 “For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.”That shows that any man with his old heart can believe UNTO righteousness. That scripture shows a man with his old heart believing UNTO righteousness. He didn’t have it yet as Calvinists claim he must in order to believe.
6. The word “whosoever” is used several times in Romans 10, directly speaking of who can be saved. “Whosoever’ can be saved. Whosoever, by the way, according to Webster’s dictionary, means “no matter who.” “Whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.” No matter who believes on hims shall be saved. Rom 10:11
7. Romans 10 ends with the statement that the Lord, who is over all the whole earth, is rich unto that same “all” that call upon him: “…for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. Romans 10:12
Dear reader, please don’t lose sight of the fact that all the verses I just showed you from Romans 8 and 10 are the immediate context of Romans 9. With that background and foundation of Romans 8 and 10, the immediate context of Romans 9, and with their many indisputable passages opposing Calvinism on many fronts, let us now enter Calvinm’s stronghold and break down the verses line upon line to show that this chapter, considered by many to be Calvinm’s best defense, is actually no defense at all. What I will show you and prove by Old Testament references and other means is that this chapter has nothing to do with the predestination of souls, and because that is the case, this chapter, the so-called fortress of Calvinism, comes crumbling down. (Be sure to see Part 2 of this study, an over 50 page essay).
source: http://kingjamesman.com/?p=504 Copyright 2008
Now please read: —> Calvinists’ Last Stand Dismantled: Romans Chapter 9